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Hay production and feeding
Contrary to the past few years, there have been many acres of hay baled this summer across much of Oklahoma.  Although some of this hay should have high forage quality, there is much that could be of lower quality. This newsletter article describes the importance of forage testing and provides an example of its use to meet livestock nutrient requirements.

full article 09-06-13

Do you know your forage quality?
Forage quality testing is an important component of hay and livestock operation. The value of forage/feed dictates their prices through increased milk or meat production or reduced supplement need. Accurate testing provides the producer, the seller and the buyer with accurate, and valuable information.

full article 09-06-13.

Take Forage Samples Correctly

Forage/feed test plays a critical role in balancing livestock rations; it is also an important aspect of buying and selling hay. Forage test can help producers decide which type of hay should be fed to various classes or production levels of livestock, and prevent livestock from nitrate toxicity.  Proper sampling of forage is very important to assure an accurate analysis because the variability of nutritive values and nitrate level is extremely large in a hay lot or a field. 

full article 08-16-13

The impact of Drought on ET and Irrigations Needs.  
This newsletter provides the average Daily Evapotranspiration (ET) as calculated from Mesonet data from the past 15 years as well as ET data from 2011.  It also includes simulated irrigation based on the past 15 years of Mesonet data that can be used to estimate irrigation capacity requirements for select Mesonet locations. 

full article 05-22-13

Chloride Fertility Management in Winter Wheat

Chloride (Cl) is one of the 16 plant essential nutrients and one that can be deficient in the Southern Great Plains. Winter wheat grown in sandy soil may respond to Cl fertilization. However, deep soil sampling is the most accurate method to estimate need.  This article addresses sampling for Cl, Cl recommendations, and Cl sources.

full article 02-28-13

Do I still Need Spring Nitrogen after a Snow?

The recent snow brought moisture to our parched soil and tale that with snow arrives a large amount of nitrogen.  Actually, all forms of precipitation deliver essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and chloride to name a few.  North East Area Agronomist Brian Pugh addresses the total amount of plant essential nutrients that can be expected in precipitation and fertilizer management after a snow.   

full article 02-28-13

Soil salinity test and interpretation
Soils can become salty due to brine contamination, irrigating with high salt water, and amending with too  much waste material. The OSU Soil, Water and Forage Analytical Lab offers soil salinity tests and this article by Dr. Zhang will guide you through the tests offered and interpretation of the results. 

Winter grain mite in wheat

Dry weather and drought stress makes wheat plants less able to recover from winter grain mite injury. In this article, Dr. Tom Royer provides tips for identification, scouting, and control of the winter grain mite. 

DROUGHT NEWS: Drought impacts on pasture soils 
The drought has raised many concerns regarding pasture management, including concerns about the impact it may have on soil physical characteristics. This article briefly discusses the impact of drought on soil characteristics and need for remediation.

2012 Nutrient Deficiency Photo Contest Results. 

With nearly 60 images submitted from around the world from a range of plants, there was challenge selecting the best.  Four photos were highlighted and each situation described in this article.

Mites and Moths: a fall for keeping a vigilant watch on wheat and canola


A dry fall combined with slow wheat growth has left wheat susceptible to winter grain mite. In canola, the diamondback moth has been spotted in recent weeks. This article provides pictures for identification and recommendations for when and how to control these pests. 

full article 11-02-12

Pre plus post herbicide programs most effective for Italian ryegrass control

Two pass herbicide programs that include pre-emergence and post emergence applications are most effective, regardless of crop. The implementation of the two pass system in wheat is becoming more important as herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass becomes more widespread. This article by Dr. Armstrong provides weed control and yield data that clearly demonstrate how effective two-pass systems are in wheat.

full article 10-26-12

Reminder: Hay Sold from Fire Ant-Quarantined Counties Must Meet Guidelines
With hay in high demand, it is important to remember that some counties in Oklahoma are infested with red imported fire ants and are under quarantine by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry.  Read important information related to often asked questions.


Grasshopper control in wheat and canola
Two years of extensive drought have left hungry grasshoppers with little to eat. This makes newly emerging wheat and canola an extremely attractive food source. Dr. Tom Royer provides some management options to prevent disaster in wheat and canola. 

full article 09-26-12


Soil pH and wheat emergence

Soil pH is normally something thought to affect the growth of plants but not emergence. Wheat emergence in a study established this year at Stillwater, however, shows that low soil pH can significantly affect the emergence of small grains in a moisture-limited environment. 

full article 09-26-12

Winter forage options
The recent rainfall across much of the state has drastically increased the reasonable forage production options for fall and spring grazing.  Many are wondering about the chance of success for traditional forage and pasture options.  It is important to prepare now for fall and winter pasture, even though it is risky, to take full advantage of the precipitation when it occurs.  

How much hay do I need?
With the continued drought and lack of appreciable pasture, hay will again be needed in many areas to extend current forager shortages.  Dr. Redfearn's article provides some guidelines on determining hay needs for the upcoming fall and winter.

full article 08-31-12

Effect of planting date and seed treatment on disease and insect pests of wheat
Current Report #7088 has been updated and includes an up-to-date table comparing seed treatments and their activity against diseases & pests. 

Historic wheat varieties

Ever wonder how wheat acres have shifted among varieties over the past 100 years or so? This document from the Oklahoma Field Office of the USDA NASS provides and overview of Oklahoma's top wheat varieties from 1919 to 2012. It is formatted for 11 by 17 paper. 

full article 08-31-12

Planting wheat into hot soil conditions

The recent rains have provided the soil moisture to get wheat drills rolling in much of Oklahoma. Planting wheat early certainly increases fall forage production potential but can also create a few issues regarding wheat emergence. 

full article 08-28-12


Heat damage in stored wheat

The extreme temperatures of 2012 have impacted almost every aspect of agriculture. It is possible, but not probable, that the high temperatures affected germination of stored wheat. This article explains the risk and provides an easy, at-home test to confirm that your stored grain has not been affected by the temperatures. 

full article 08-28-12



4-H Field Crops Judging Contest

The 4-H Field Crops Judging Contest will be held Saturday, September 15 at the Oklahoma County Extension Office in Oklahoma City. Registration begins at 9:30 a.m., and the contest begins at 10 a.m.




Poultry litter transfer credit reinstated

The $10/ton tax credit available for buyers that purchase and transport poultry litter outside of Oklahoma Nutrient Limited Watersheds has been reinstated as of July 1, 2012. 


Pay careful attention while seeding no-till winter canola in 2012

Residue thickness is a key factor in no-till canola winter survival and residue thickness this fall will be a lot greater this year following a 40-60 bu/ac wheat crop than last year. 


Q&A regarding PVP protection

Most hard red winter wheat varieties are protected by Title V of the Plant Variety Protection Act, which means they can only be sold as a certified class of seed. A quick look at this article could help ensure that cheap seed this fall does not result in lawyer fees next spring.

full article 08-24-12

Greenseeker handheld crop sensor

Trimble announces the release of the OSU-developed handheld Greenseeker crop sensor. At MSRP of $495 this new unit offers significant cost and size advantages.

full article 08-24-12

The myths surrounding anhydrous

Anhydrous ammonia  is a popular source of nitrogen due to its relative low cost.  While anhydrous is a dangerous product there are several perceived negatives about anhydrous ammonia that have been proven to be wrong. 


Pay attention to nitrate in some forages

Excessive nitrate accumulation can occur when the uptake of nitrate exceeds its utilization in plants for protein synthesis due to factors such as over N fertilization and stressful weather conditions. It can be toxic to livestock when too much nitrate is accumulated in the forage crops.

full article 08-08-12

DROUGHT NEWS:Pre-plant soil test nitrate results following a drought.

Many producers questioned the soil nitrate test results they received last year due to high values.  The same is being seen is some areas this year.  This article discusses the cause and approaches that should be taken.

DROUGHT NEWS:Bermudagrass recovery following drought.

This article highlights a study in Haskell OK that is shedding light on droughts impact on bermudagrass forage production and the affect of fertility on recovery.


DROUGHT NEWS:Does prolonged drought affect soil test results?

Many are questioning the impact of dry soil conditions on soil test results.  This article addresses droughts impact on routine soil test analysis of N, P, K and pH.

Preparing for the 2012-2013 Winter Crop

This is just a reminder about what fertility issues you should be taking care of now and reports of how N-Rich Strips fared in the 2011-12 crop year

full article 08-01-12

False chinch bugs in grain sorghum, 2012

Recent reports have indicated that some false chinch bugs have been found feeding on developing grain sorghum heads. Dr. Royer discusses sampling and treatment strategies.

 full article 07-18-12 

Water requirements for peanut

Water use of a peanut plants can easily approach 0.30 in per day. Keeping moisture stress at a minimum is critical starting at peak bloom. 

 full article 07-03-12



Water requirements for soybean

For those producers with irrigated soybean acres this summer stay on top of irrigation requirements during reproductive phases to maintain high yield potential. 

 full article 07-03-12


Late-planted soybean

When planting soybean after wheat or canola harvest you should make some adjustments to help maintain a high yield potential. Any practice to increase light interception will help protect yield potential.


DROUGHT NEWS: Environmental causes of white heads in wheat

White heads have been showing up in Oklahoma wheat fields over the past few weeks. Some of the white heads are due to diseases, but the majority of white heads are due to the combined effects of heat and drought. This newsletter article describes what is going on inside of the plant to result in white wheat heads. 

full article 05-08-12


DROUGHT NEWS: What can we expect from summer pastures this year?

We have observed a very early green up this spring for nearly all of our summer grass pastures.  Some of these may have even come out of dormancy as early as late February.  In most cases, this is 3 or 4 earlier than normal.  This newsletter article addresses the current conditions for continued recovery of drought-damaged pastures.  

New Fact Sheet: Cotton Yield Goal N Rec.

Over the past five decades cotton production has dramatically changed.  Boll weevil resistance, improved genetics and improved agronomics has lead to a 3x increase in the average lint yield across Oklahoma.  Fact Sheet PSS-2158 describes the changes in the crops need for nitrogen since yield goal N rates were first established years ago and how as a group we have changed the yield goal recommendation from 60 lbs N per bale to 50 lbs N per bale.

full article 04-25-12


Seeding rates for peanut in 2012

As the peanut planting season is nearing, decisions have to be made as far as seeding rate and variety selection. Variety selection has probably already been made at this point, however, this year has brought new challenges due to poor seed quality and lack of seed. Therefore, the question is can I reduce my seeding rate to make seed cover more acres?  

full article 04-23-12


 Start looking for Variegated Cutworms in Canola, PRONTO!

Several canola fields in Western Oklahoma have been invaded by variegated cutworm caterpillars. Oklahoma canola growers and crop advisers should be scouting immediately for signs of the cutworms feeding on pods.

 full article 04-19-12


Armyworm moth flights = check your wheat!

Wheat producers in northern TX are battling armyworms and moths have made north of the Red River. Oklahoma wheat producers and advisors should be on guard over the coming weeks and check frequently for armyworm activity. The linked article provides pictures and treatment guidelines. 

full article 04-16-12.


Lodged wheat and physiological leaf speckling

Recent storms have resulted in lodged wheat around the state of Oklahoma. This article provides a few pointers on determining yield potential and management of downed wheat. There are also pictures and information about a phenomenon called physiological leaf speckling / spotting / flecking.

full article 04-06-12


Late Season Nitrogen Applications in Wheat
This year the crop is well ahead of schedule and many locations are showing signs of nitrogen deficiencies.  This article addresses nitrogen applications post hollow stem.
Bird cherry oat aphids in wheat: they have something to eat this year

We have a much healthier wheat crop this year than last, and bird cherry oat aphids are taking advantage.  Bird cherry oat aphid (BCOA) numbers have been increasing in wheat this past 1-2 weeks in parts of Oklahoma. This article provides identification tools and an estimated yield loss table for making spraying decisions.

DROUGHT NEWS:  Pasture recovery following drought: Pasture recovery prescriptions
This is the fifth in a series of five newsletter articles focusing on Pasture Recovery Following Drought in warm-season grass pastures.  This article provides critical information on recommendations for recovery of drought stressed pastures.  

 full article 03-07-12


Winter Grain Mite in Wheat

Roger Gribble, Area Extension Agronomist in Enid reported a wheat field that appeared to be damaged by herbicide, but on closer inspection, was heavily infested with winter grain mite. This article provides pictures and scouting recommendations for winter grain mite. 

DROUGHT NEWS:  Pasture recovery following drought: grazing and harvest deferment
This is the fourth in a series of five newsletter articles focusing on Pasture Recovery Following Drought in warm-season grass pastures.  This article provides critical information on the approach for post-drought pasture management focusing on grazing and harvest deferment as a tool for post-drought recovery. 

2012 Plant Science Academy at OSU

Are you curious about growing food for a growing population and conserving the health of the environment? If so, you should consider attending the Plant Science Academy at Oklahoma State University on June 6 through June 8, 2012.

 full article 02-16-12

Flyer with details


Starter Fertilizer Management for Soybean in Oklahoma

This is a summary of a starter fertilizer project that was conducted with dryland soybean in Oklahoma. The summary contains early season growth measurements as well as tissue nutrient concentrations.

full article 02-16-12


Starter Fertilizer Management for Corn in Oklahoma

This is a summary of a starter fertilizer project that was conducted with dryland corn in north central Oklahoma. The summary contains early season growth measurements as well as tissue nutrient concentrations.

full article 02-16-12


DROUGHT NEWS:  Pasture recovery following drought: fertilization as a tool

This is the third in a series of five newsletter articles focusing on Pasture Recovery Following Drought in warm-season grass pastures.  This article provides critical information on the approach for post-drought pasture management focusing on fertilization as a tool for post-drought recovery. 

full article 02-14-12

Two new wheat varieties released

Dr. Brett Carver announced the release of two new wheat varieties at the 2012 OCIA meeting. Varieties Gallagher (OK07214) and Iba (OK07209) off significant advantages to wheat producers in the southern Great Plains. 

Freeze injury to wheat 

I have received several calls over the past few days regarding yellow/brown areas in wheat fields. Most of the symptoms are similar to the pictures below and are the result of freeze injury that occurred a few weeks ago. 

full article 02-07-12

Spring oat as a forage crop

There are currently few opportunities remaining to produce late-winter to early-spring forage if you did not plant wheat pasture, annual ryegrass, or fall-fertilize tall fescue. One option to consider that may offer some hope for relief is spring-planted oat.  Oat can be planted in late winter through early spring for pasture or hay. 

DROUGHT NEWS:  Pasture recovery following drought: approach for post-drought pasture management

This is the second in a series of five newsletter articles focusing on Pasture Recovery Following Drought in warm-season grass pastures.  This article provides critical information on the approach for post-drought pasture management focusing on weed control as a tool for post-drought recovery. 

Start Looking For Army Cutworms in Alfalfa, Canola and Wheat

This is the time of year when army cutworm activity will become visible. Mark Gregory, Area Agronomy Specialist in SW Oklahoma sent in some digital photos of army cutworms to the Plant Disease and Insect Diagnostic Lab that were collected from a canola field in Washita County. Army cutworms can cause severe stand loss in canola and winter wheat if numbers exceed thresholds and are not controlled.  

full article 02-02-12

2012 Herbicide Update

Since the start of 2012, there have been two announcements made regarding herbicide name changes: PowerFlex HL (a new, higher concentration formulation of PowerFlex) for use in wheat and Liberty (name change from Ignite) for use in Liberty Link crops and non-crop situations.


Sensor Based Nitrogen Recommendation (SBNRC) Technology Update

For the more than 500,000 acres of winter wheat in Oklahoma that have an N-Rich strip in them, this year the mild winter weather pattern is causing a need to adjust the values inputted into the SBNRC calculator.  This current winter has seen an abnormally high number of days with an average daily temperature between 35° and 40° F.  This creates an unrealistically high yield potential and faulty nitrogen rate recommendation.  This article outlines what is happening to the SBNRC and how to make the correction so that a correct yield potential and N rate is calculated.  The adjustment is easily preformed and makes sound agronomic sense.

DROUGHT NEWS:  Pasture recovery following drought: damage assessment and recovery

This is the first in a series of five newsletter articles focusing on Pasture Recovery Following Drought in warm-season grass pastures.  This article provides critical information on damage assessment and recovery.

 full article 01-12-12

Fall- and winter-fallow weed management
In no-till production systems, weeds such as marestail and Italian ryegrass typically become more difficult to control as they become bigger and may not be adequately controlled with a preplant herbicide application.  As a result, to prepare for spring and summer crops, it may be necessary to begin controlling weeds well in advance of planting with burndown and early-preplant treatments in the fall or winter.  This Production Technology report discusses some of the benefits and potential concerns with fall- and winter-fallow weed management.

2012 Northwest Oklahoma Grain Sorghum Educational Program Series
Monday, January 30 thru Friday February 3rd please check flier for date, time, and location in your area.

Marestail control in winter wheat
Marestail, also known as horseweed or mule's tail, has become an increasingly difficult-to-control weed in winter wheat and no-till production systems.  This Production Technology report summarizes research from 2011 where several herbicide options were evaluated for marestail control.  Regardless of the herbicide used, treatments should be applied when plants are still in the rosette growth stage and before they have bolted to maximize herbicide performance and marestail control. 

Time to watch the fields for nitrogen need
Soil test results from this summer often showed high amounts of residual nitrates.  If you were to travel the state looking at N-Rich strips you would see many of these showing up in fields that had significant amounts of residual nitrogen.  This article addresses the aspects of the nitrogen cycle that have led to these fields now showing nitrogen deficiencies.   Once again the N-Rich strip method is proving to be a great tool for winter wheat producers. 

Scholarship Opportunity
OSU’s Department of Plant and Soil Sciences announces the initiation of a new scholarship program available to any 10-12th grade student in public, private or home school.  Improving Conservation through Experimentation (ICE) consist of three components: Research, Report and Presentation.  The top ten will receive free registration to the conference, lodging and $100 travel stipend.  Scholarships to the PSS Department will be awarded to the top three presenters

Tank-mixing herbicides to improve weed control in winter wheat
Tank-mixing herbicides is a simple way to broaden the spectrum of weeds that can be controlled in a single application.  In addition to improving weed control, tank-mixing herbicides from multiple modes of action is also an important step in the prevention and management of herbicide-resistant weeds.  While most herbicides can be tank-mixed with one another, there are some situations where the combination of two or more herbicides may have a detrimental effect on weed control or increase the potential for crop injury.  Always read each product's label and check for specific information regarding compatibility, use rate, and recommendations for adjuvants and/or surfactants. 

Is spring wheat a viable option in Oklahoma?
Farmers with acres that didn't get sown to wheat are looking for options, and some have asked about spring wheat. The OSU Small Grains Extension Program does not currently work with spring wheat, but previous research indicates yield potential of spring wheat in Oklahoma is 50% or less of winter wheat. Producers considering spring wheat production should compare the economics of spring wheat versus alternatives such as oat, haygrazer, soybean and grain sorghum. 

Spraying for cereal aphids in winter wheat: when is it too cold?
Including an insecticide with top dress nitrogen will save passes across the field, but will it kill the aphids? It turns out that most insecticides used for greenbugs don't kill very well until temperatures rise above 55 F. The insecticide will hang around for about two weeks and provide about 70 - 80% control if temperatures rise during this time period. While not as good as under warm conditions, this is enough control to set aphid populations back. It is also important to remember that it is a waste of money to include insecticides with top dress if aphids are not present. 

Call to Oklahoma producers: we want to know how to reach you on the web
The southern Great Plains wheat pest management program needs survey data to determine how you use the internet to access agricultural information. Please consider participating in the survey linked in the following file 

DROUGHT NEWS:  Sorghum seed shortages likely

All crops in the southern Great Plains were affected by the 2011 drought. This includes sorghum fields being produced for seed. As a result, sorghum seed shortages are likely for 2012, so book your seed now. 

full article 12-01-11

When is it too cold to spray weeds?
With the recent rains and mild temperatures, the wheat and canola crops are well established in many parts of the state.  As well, many of the winter weeds are also off to a great start.  As we move into December, the question "How cold is too cold for herbicide applications?" is often asked.  This article will discuss some of the considerations to weigh before making a winter herbicide application. 

full article 11-30-11

DROUGHT NEWS:  Don’t graze too early!
Recent rainfall across much of Oklahoma and the southern Great Plains has dramatically improved the potential for winter pastures and early spring forage production.  However, it will not much effect on summer pastures.  Since we do not know the growing conditions next spring and summer, it is important to develop a strategy to speed pasture recovery.  The most important strategy will be to avoid the temptation to begin grazing as soon as plants begin their spring growth.
Mobile Apps and Web Resources to Improve Weed Control
The abundance of smartphones, tablet computers, and laptops provides the opportunity to quickly find answers for many difficult questions you face in the day-to-day operations on your farm.  For weed control in particular, there are several mobile and online resources that can help you make informed decisions regarding pesticides and their use rates.  This article highlights some of these useful (and free) smartphone apps and websites.


2011 OSU Winter Crop School

Registration for the 2011 OSU Winter Crop School is now open. View the linked flyer for a tentative list of speakers and registration information.  

full report 10-28-11

Current Report Breaks Down Pre-mix Herbicides for Winter Wheat
Many herbicide options for winter wheat comprise multiple herbicide active ingredients to broaden the spectrum of weed species the product will control. Herbicides are also combined to include additional herbicide modes of action so that development of herbicide-resistant weeds can be prevented or delayed.  This current report (CR-2785) lists several pre-mix herbicides that are labeled for use in winter wheat and the equivalent rates of the individual herbicide components.

Grass Weed Control in Winter Wheat
Winter annual grasses are typically the most difficult weeds to control in wheat.  With the recent rainfall and warm temperatures, winter grasses will soon be growing and competing with wheat for available moisture and nutrients.  Within the next few weeks, it will be necessary to scout each field and properly identify the grasses and choose the appropriate herbicides.

full article 10-25-11


2011 Nutrient Deficiency Photo Contest Winners
Several great images where sent in over the 2010-2011 cropping season.  After looking at all of the photos five winners were selected.  Take a look at the article to see the images and winning photographers.  The contest starts new again with the 2011-2012 winter crops and 2012 summer crops.  We of course would like to see even more photos in more crops this season.   File is large so it may take time to download.


Dry Fall = Plant Vampires in Wheat (and Canola)  
A hot, dry summer like we have experienced can drive many plant feeding insects to look for any green, succulent plants to snack on until they die or hibernate for the winter. 

Check Canola for Effectiveness of Seed Treatments on Aphids
Now is a good time to check and make sure your insecticide seed-treatments are working in your canola fields. We suggest that producers use their field-time to evaluate whether the seed treatments are working as expected.  Three aphids are commonly found in canola: the cabbage aphid, the turnip aphid, and the green peach aphid.

full article 10-21-11


Diamondback Moths in Seedling Canola?
This article is a follow-up to the one posted earlier this week on scouting winter canola fields for the presence of foliar feeding caterpillars. Drs. Royer and Giles discuss the specifics of controlling diamondback moth larvae.
Don’t Let Armyworms Bushwhack Your Wheat or Canola
Be on the lookout for armyworms in wheat and canola fields. Several reports have come in indicating high populations of armyworms in fields already this fall.

Majoring in Plant and Soil Sciences
Why major in Plant and Soil Sciences? In 2010, OSU Plant and Soil Sciences students received average scholarships of $2,600 and students reported 100% employment upon graduation. Not to mention study abroad opportunities and exciting degree options. Learn more in the linked article.

DROUGHT NEWS:  Getting Winter Canola Established before Winter Dormancy-How Late is too late to plant?
Dry seedbed conditions continue to exist in many parts of Oklahoma as we approach the tail-end of the canola planting window. However, we still have time to plant and have a good chance to establish winter hardy canola stands. Canola plants require an adequate amount of time (4-6 weeks) to develop leaf area and begin photosynthesis to enable carbohydrate storage in roots. 

full article 10-04-11

DROUGHT NEWS:  Time to Dust in Wheat?
Dusting in wheat without subsoil moisture this September was questionable. Providing that October brings cooler temperatures, however, dusting in winter wheat might now be an acceptable option. This article provides a few tips for dusting in wheat. 

Nitrogen Requirement for Winter Wheat

Nitrogen requirement for grain-only wheat is a fairly straight forward calculation with the assistance of a recent soil test. There are a few additional steps required when calculating N requirements for dual-purpose or forage only production. This article provides information on the adjustments to make when using one of these systems. 

full article 09-26-11

Modifying John Deere Vacuum Meters to Seed Canola with a Sorghum Disk
Over the past season or two, there has been some interest in using row crop planters to seed canola. Since most manufacturers do not specifically offer disks or plates for canola seed, producers are required to use other plates. With input from some innovative producers and a little testing, we have developed some guidelines for adapting sorghum plates to meter canola with a John Deere vacuum planter.

full article 09-20-11

 DROUGHT NEWS: Residual Soil Nitrate Levels Following a Drought

Over 45% of the nearly 2000 soils samples submitted to OSU’s SWFAL testing labs have had soil nitrate levels above 40 lbs N per acre. Looking at current soil moisture and the forecast of another La Nina event putting out all of your nitrogen pre-plant for a typical yield goal would be ill advised.  This article discusses the results and the importance of soil testing and the N-Rich strip for the 2011-2012 winter wheat crop.

Managing Pod-feeding Insects in Soybean
In areas of the state where we still have healthy soybean plants we have observed an increase in pod-feeding caterpillar. This article addresses which pests to monitor during pod fill in this year’s soybean crop.
Two-Pass Herbicide Programs Maximize Italian Ryegrass Control and Winter Wheat Yields
Italian ryegrass, also known as Marshall ryegrass, continues to be one of the most problematic weeds in winter wheat fields throughout Oklahoma.  This article summarizes research conducted during 2010-2011 that compared single applications of Axiom, Axial XL, and two-pass herbicide programs.  Results from these trials show that two-pass herbicide programs of Axiom followed by Axial XL eliminate early-season Italian ryegrass competition, improve weed control, and maximize winter wheat yields.

Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds on the Rise in Oklahoma
After recent trips through north-central and eastern Oklahoma, my fear is that multiple glyphosate-resistant weeds, including Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, and marestail, have now established a firm foothold in several areas around the state, meaning that weed control is going to be much more complicated in the near future.  While producers may be ready to move on from this summer, the increasing issue of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their ability to quickly spread is too large to ignore.

Heat Damage in Stored Wheat
Storing grain at high temperatures can adversely affect germination potential. While the extreme heat of 2011 has made heat-induced sterilization in stored wheat possible, it is not probable. Growers who want to put their mind at ease should conduct an at-home germination test as described in the linked article. 

 DROUGHT NEWS: Evaluating the Potential of my Soybean Crop that hasn't been cut for Hay
For some producers the time has come to determine if their soybean crop will be cut for hay or left for grain. The next 10 to 14 days will be critical as pods set during this time-frame still have a chance of making it to maturity.

Managing Drought-stressed Pasture

The recent rains in many locations over the past several weeks have resulted in some pastures beginning to show signs of life.  Even though the temptation is to begin grazing these pastures immediately, there are a couple of areas of concern.  The following article on Managing Drought-damaged Pastures offers some insight into the recovery of these pastures.

full article 09-01-11


Herbicide How-to: Maximizing glyphosate activity 

Glyphosate is an extremely important tool for weed control in many production systems because it is highly effective on many weed species over a range of sizes and is very cost-effective.  This fact sheet will help explain some of the subtle differences between glyphosate products that can impact use and important considerations with using glyphosate.  

Winter Canola Insurance Deadline
The deadline for winter canola crop insurance is Aug. 31.  

No-till Winter Canola - Making it Work and Understanding Why
Success of direct seeding winter canola into wheat stubble has received criticism since the introduction of winter canola in the southern Plains due to winter stand loss. The decrease in stand may be due to several factors related to soil, micro-climate differences at the surface in no-till, crown height of canola plants, etc. 
Value of Peanut Hay in Simple Terms

With the continued shortage of hay, peanut producers will most likely be enticed to bale peanut residue after harvest to sell. A simple way to consider the base value of the hay is too consider the amounts of N, P, and K that is removed with the hay. On average, peanut hay will contain 1.7% N, 0.35% P2O5, and 2.1% K2O.


DROUGHT NEWS: Peanut Peg and Pod Development

With the continued hot and dry weather patterns, many peanut producers are wondering if and when the peanut plants will begin to set pods. Several factors determine pod set and these conditions have not been present the last month

full article 08-19-11


DROUGHT NEWS: Subsoil Moisture Considerations for the Up Coming Wheat Crop
The record temperatures and persistent drought this summer has generally depleted the moisture of most soils in Oklahoma as is evident from Mesonet soil moisture data.  However, this does not necessarily hold true for our cropland.  Soil samples collected near Stillwater to a depth of 4ft showed that summer fallowed soils  contained 2.5 inches more water than the soil at the nearby Mesonet station.  In contrast, soil moisture under a standing corn crop was similar to that of the Mesonet station. These differences should be taken into account when allocating pre-plant inputs for the upcoming wheat crop.

full article 08-08-11

DROUGHT NEWS: Potential for herbicide carryover in a drought year
With the lingering drought conditions, many producers are wondering about the effect of dry weather on herbicide carryover as they prepare for fall planting.  While dry weather will slow herbicide breakdown in the soil, there are several other factors to consider when deciding if it will be safe to plant this fall.


Using soil testing to determine sulfur needs of winter canola
Winter canola has been shown to respond to sulfur fertilization in Canada and some parts of the United States. We evaluated canola response to sulfur fertilization at Perkins, OK and did not find a significant response to sulfur fertilization; however, a soil test is needed to determine if sulfur fertilization is likely to pay for itself on your farm.

DROUGHT NEWS: Planting wheat into hot soils

Short or nonexistent pastures and tight hay supplies mean that producers will be anxious to get wheat pasture going as soon as possible. Wheat can be sown for pasture as mid August in Oklahoma, but there are a few cautionary items to consider prior to sowing wheat this early.

DROUGHT NEWS:Desperate times call for desperate measures
Most of the summer pastures in Oklahoma are showing signs of drought with many acres of bermudagrass pastures grazed extremly short.  Predictions are for the current dry weather to continue at least through the end of October.  Based on this, coupled with the lack of available hay, are there any pasture options that offer any hope to the continued forage shortage?

DROUGHT NEWS: What is the nutrient value of baled corn stalks
The hot and dry weather this summer has had devastating impact on all dry land crops and hay supplies are extremely tight. As a result, many producers are considering baling failed corn and soybean for use as hay. When making this decision, it is important to consider the nutrients contained in the failed crop residue and the value they have if left on the field for subsequent crops.

full article 08-01-11


Things to know about drilling mud land application
More land is used for spreading drilling wastes due to increased oil and gas exploration in Oklahoma. Consequently, many landowners, extension staff, and consultants are concerned about issues related to land application of drilling mud. This article contains brief answers to address some of those concerns.

full article 08-01-11


Effect of planting date and seed treatment on disease and insect pests of wheat
As much as 60% of wheat in Oklahoma is sown early with the intent of being used as a dual-purpose crop. While early sowing increases forage growth, it also presents some problems regarding disease and insect pests of wheat. Current Report 7088 describes some of these issues and provides an apples to apples comparison of seed treatments currently available to farmers.

Future of Precision Ag GPS could be Hampered
If a proposed 4G network is implemented, precision GPS use in agriculture will be severely hampered and likely cease. This article discusses what can be done to voice your opinion.

full article 07-27-11  

DROUGHT NEWS: Aflatoxin in baled corn
In an attempt to salvage something from drought-stricken corn fields, many growers have baled dried corn plants for use as hay. Whenever the hay contains ears with kernels, there is a risk of aflatoxin contamination. This article by Dr. Thomas Isakeit from Texas A&M provides a few items to consider.
DROUGHT NEWS: Hay Harvesting Tips for Failed Corn Crops
With the current drought, some producers are interested in baling failed corn crops as hay. While this is certainly feasible, there are some challenges associated with swathing and baling corn residue.This article will provide some tips for cutting and baling a failed corn crop, which should ONLY be done after testing the crop for nitrate.

DROUGHT NEWS: Options for high nitrate forages
Once again, we are under an extreme drought with July and August still to come.  Pasture and forage production has slowed, if not stopped in much of the southern Great Plains.  There are many acres of dryland corn and, surprisingly, some irrigated corn showing signs of drought damage.  Because of the need for forage in the drought region, there are questions about the best way to manage these acres for forage.  The following article addresses some of the options for using drought-damaged corn as an emergency forage.

DROUGHT NEWS: Johnsongrass anyone?

The current forage shortage is becoming a larger problem with each day of no appreciable rainfall.  One grassy weed that is surviving and doing remarkably well is johnsongrass.  Is there any value to utilizing johnsongrass since it seems to be one of the only things growing?


 DROUGHT NEWS: Have you looked into your hay quality crystal ball?

It is important for livestock producers to know the quality of the hay they are feeding.  After forage quality has been determined, rations can be formulated and balanced according to the nutritional requirements.


Time to spray RR or LL crops for weeds? Scout fields for grasshoppers, blister beetles, and other defoliators before you spray
If it’s time to over-spray your Roundup Ready or Liberty Link crops for weeds, take some time to scout for grasshoppers and other defoliators. If they are at economically treatable numbers, it would be prudent to include a registered insecticide with the over-spray and save a trip across the field. 


DROUGHT NEWS: Hot and Dry Weather can Trigger Nitrate Accumulation in Some Forage Crops
Nitrate is one of the major nitrogen (N) forms utilized by plants. Excessive nitrate accumulation can occur when the uptake of nitrate exceeds its utilization in plants for protein synthesis due to factors such as over N fertilization and stressful weather conditions. It can be toxic to livestock when too much nitrate is accumulated in the forage crops.

Japanese beetles in soybean
Reports of Japanese beetles have been received from the northern part of Oklahoma. They can cause damage to young soybean plants.

Sorghum and double crop soybean are vulnerable to false chinch bug infestations.
Now that the battle with false chinch bugs in canola is over, growers may wonder what lies ahead. This insect typically feeds on plants in the mustard and beet family. It thrives in drought conditions.
DROUGHT NEWS: How is the current weather affecting my soybean crop?
With the recent string of hot and dry weather the 2011 soybean crop is showing signs of moisture stress.
Current Report breaks down pre-mix herbicides for corn and sorghum
Many herbicide options for corn and grain sorghum comprise multiple herbicide active ingredients to broaden the spectrum of weed species the product will control. Herbicides are also combined to include additional herbicide modes of action so that development of herbicide-resistant weeds can be prevented or delayed.  This current report (CR-2782) lists several pre-mix herbicides that are labeled for use in field corn and grain sorghum and the equivalent rates of the individual herbicide components.

Glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in Oklahoma
Waterhemp, one of the many pigweed species found in Oklahoma crop production fields, has long been a difficult weed to control in row crops.  Unfortunately, waterhemp has become an even greater concern.  During the 2010 growing season, several populations of waterhemp in north-central and eastern Oklahoma were confirmed to be resistant to glyphosate.  This article discusses some of the results from our greenhouse testing and options to manage and prevent the spread of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp. 

full article 06-20-11

Zone Management

Zone Management is a good practice that can not only increase the efficiency of fertilizers and lime but also increase yields.  This article discusses how zones can be delineated but also how management zones can miss underlying variability. 

full article 06-14-11

2011 OSU Weed Science Field Tour

Mark your calendars for the “1st Annual” OSU Weed Science Field Tour on Friday, July 15th at the Cimarron Valley Research Station near Perkins.  The tour will begin with registration at 9 am and conclude with lunch.  There will be no charge to attend the tour.  To make preparations for hand-out materials and lunch, please RSVP to Deana Titus before July 12th by phone (405-744-6420) or email (deana.titus@okstate.edu).  

flyer 6-10-11

Look-a-like weeds: Pigweeds

Pigweed, carless weed, amaranth, hog weed, Palmer pigweed... Pigweeds have about as many names as there are different species of pigweeds.  The three most common and problematic pigweed species in Oklahoma crop production are redroot pigweed, Palmer amaranth, and waterhemp.  In this article, you will learn some tips and tricks to help distinguish among these similar weed species.

full article 6-9-11

Weed Control in Sesame

Sesame is an increasingly popular option for Oklahoma producers looking for a rotational crop that can handle hot, dry summers.  Currently, herbicide options for sesame production are limited.  However, through a combination of herbicides and a vigorous, competitive crop, it is possible to produce high-quality sesame.

full article 5-25-11

DROUGHT NEWS: Soil Test and the N-Rich strip

As the 2011 crop is being harvested now is the time to plan and prepare for the next season.  After the drought that most of Oklahoma experienced both soil testing and N-Rich strip will be extremely valuable.  It is nearly impossible to estimate the amount of nitrogen left in the soil after this year’s low yielding crop.  Soil test will provide the needed answers about residual N levels and the N-Rich strip will guide top-dress decisions.

  full article 05-25-11

Thinking About No-till?

High Have higher fuel prices got you thinking about no-till?  Certainly many wheat growers in Oklahoma are contemplating no-till.  If you are considering no-till for the coming year, you should be preparing for it before wheat harvest.  One item often overlooked by the first-time no-tiller is spreading residue at harvest.


Canola Custom Harvesters List

This file contains a list of custom harvesters, swathers, and pushers that are capable and knowledgeable on harvesting canola. The list was put together with the help from the Great Plains Canola Association, U.S. Custom Harvesters Inc., and OSU to assist the farmers in locating a custom harvester to get their crop out of the field in a timely manner.  A list of the Oklahoma Members of the U.S. Custom Harvesters Inc is also located within this document, so wheat producers might find this article to be valuable as well.

full article 05-09-11

Plant Science Academy Deadline Extended

The registration deadline for the 2011 OSU Plant Science Academy has been extended to May 13. If you know of a young person interested in plant science or agronomy, encourage them to register today.

full article 05-04-11


Wheat Disease Update

Disease activity is still negligible in the southern Great Plains. Light activity is being reported in Kansas and Nebraska.

full article 04-29-11

DROUGHT NEWS: Soil Management After Termination of a Drought-stressed Wheat Crop

This year's drought in the western part of the state has raised concerns for the potential of wind and water erosion this summer. Special consideration needs to be given in order to protect the soil.  

full article 04-28-11

Wheat Variety Trial Forage Report Available

In spite of the extremely dry conditions, forage production at our El Reno and Stillwater sites were well above average with all varieties producing over 2,000 lb/A of forage by early December. In fact, most varieties produced statistically equal forage yields in the fall of 2010. There was a wide variation in when varieties reached first hollow stem, however, so the usability of this forage was not the same among varieties. 

full report 04-21-11

Wheat Disease Update

Wheat around Stillwater is entering the flowering stage, but no change in foliar disease incidence and severity over the last 10 days has occurred because of the drought.  Although pustules of leaf rust and powdery mildew can be found, foliar diseases appear to be negligible around Stillwater and across Oklahoma. View the full report to see what is happening in surrounding states. 

Fertilizing Soybean in Oklahoma

Soybean requires plant nutrients for growth the same as any other crops. Soybeans are high in mineral elements and remove considerable quantities of these elements from the soil. Recent soil tests indicate a great need to address pH, P, and K in order to reach yield goals.


Fertilizing Soybean in Oklahoma

Soybean requires plant nutrients for growth the same as any other crops. Soybeans are high in mineral elements and remove considerable quantities of these elements from the soil. Recent soil tests indicate a great need to address pH, P, and K in order to reach yield goals.

full article 04-21-11

DROUGHT NEWS: Hay Purchasing Guidelines
Hay supplies in many areas continue to dwindle due to the current drought.  This is forcing many producers to search for hay during a time when grazing would normally be available.  Although a reliable forage analysis is recommended to determine nutritive value, there are times when one is not available.  Following are some general guidelines that can be used to evaluate forage nutritive value until the forage can be properly analyzed. 

full article 04-20-11


DROUGHT NEWS: Forage Management and Grazing Strategies During Drought
As pasture conditions continue to decline over much of the southern Great Plains, many livestock producers are searching for options to stretch forage and pasture until conditions improve. Even though the sort-term outlook does not appear good, there are management strategies that can help reduce forage shortages. 

 full article 04-20-11


Confusion about False Chinch Bug Thresholds!
Observations of adult false cinch bugs in canola have been reported. This insect can be a problem during dry springs like we are currently experiencing. Drs. Royer and Giles discuss the facts about false chinch bugs and thresholds for control.

full article 04-19-11


DROUGHT NEWS: Where is My Nitrogen?
With the drought taking its toll many producers are wondering about what has happen to the nitrogen that was applied to the crop.  This article discusses the nitrogen removal and losses that would have occurred over the cropping season and the best option determining residual nitrogen levels.

full article 04-18-11


Making Sense of Herbicide-Resistance Traits in Crop
With the many acronyms found in farm magazines, seed catalogs, and herbicide advertisements, choosing a herbicide-resistant hybrid or variety to improve weed control can sometimes be a confusing task.  As we get into time for planting spring and summer crops, I thought it might be useful to give a definition and description for the common acronyms that are often used for the various herbicide-resistance traits available for crops in Oklahoma.

full article 04-18-11


Can I Plant a Legume on Soils High in Residual Nitrate?
The potential exists this summer to be planting legumes, such as soybean, on soil that has high nitrate concentrations in the surface 24 inches of soil due to crop failure from drought or hail. One of the questions that arises in this situation is: will planting legumes in soil with high residual nitrate prevent plants from fixing their own nitrogen? This article will cover the facts.

Barley Yellow Dwarf Starting to Show
Stunted wheat in circular patterns and yellow/purple leaves are starting to show up in Oklahoma wheat fields. These are classic symptoms of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and are a sign that aphids were present in the field last fall and/or winter. Aphids serve as the vector for BYDV and transmit the virus to wheat plants as they feed.


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